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الثلاثاء، 30 مارس، 2010

the Great Pyramid

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The pyramids on the Giza Plateau near Cairo. At far right is the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), in the middle and closer is the pyramid of Khafre (Chephren), and on left is the smallest of the three major Giza pyramids - that of Menkaure (Mycerinus). Three small subsidiary pyramids are at the extreme left. The photograph is a montage by Mark Rigby taken from a rocky outcrop to the southeast. 

There are about 110 pyramids currently known in Egypt, many in a state of great disrepair and almost unrecognisable. Some were built as burial places for kings and others for queens. A pyramid also may have represented a stairway for the king to ascend to the heavens. Another possibility is that it was symbolic of the primeval mound on which the sun god/creator was born.

 

How the Egyptians managed the complex organisation of labour and the physical movement of large stone blocks is still a matter for debate.  Pyramid construction may have involved ramps being erected around the pyramid. Blocks of stone would have been pulled up on sledges and the ramps dismantled later. It is believed that most of the labour for the construction of the pyramids would have come from farmers who were available during the inundation season when the Nile River flooded and farmland was underwater. It would also have been an ideal time for the transportation by boat of large stone blocks from their quarries to the pyramid sites

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The earliest pyramid was the Step Pyramid of king Djoser of the Old Kingdom's 3rd Dynasty over 4,600 years ago. The pyramid (at right) was the largest structure ever erected at Saqqara, the necropolis that overlooked the ancient capital of Memphis. Its construction was initially in the form of a low mastaba tomb upon which extra levels were gradually added to give it a step-like appearance.

 

Underneath Djoser's pyramid was a complex system of corridors with a burial chamber lined with Aswan pink granite about 28 metres underground. The entrance was sealed with a three-tonne granite plug. The pyramid's outside would have been cased with fine limestone, but this was removed long ago. Nearby were the Mortuary Temple, a Great Court and various other structures.  

The first true pyramid (at right) was developed for King Sneferu during the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom. It is referred to as the Red Pyramid, because of its colour, or the North Pyramid because of its position at Dashur south of Cairo. It was about 105 metres high with its sides measuring 220 metres.

The largest pyramid ever built was the Great Pyramid at Giza southwest of modern Cairo (see Giza and the Pyramids). Built for king Khufu, this pyramid was completed around 2550 BC

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It is estimated that the pyramid contains approximately 2,300,000 blocks of stone with an average weight of 2.5 tonnes each and some up to 15 tonnes. Its sides measure 230 metres in length. The structure would have towered about 146.6 metres high, but it is now a little shorter owing to the outer casing having been removed to build many of Cairo's buildings during the Middle Ages. The interior design was changed during the pyramid's construction and the burial chamber was relocated.

 

One of its most spectacular features is the enormous sloping Grand Gallery. At the Gallery's top is a low corridor which leads into the King's Chamber, the walls of which are made of polished granite. A large granite sarcophagus is open and no burial goods have ever been found.

 

To the east of the pyramid, some of the smooth basalt paving of the mortuary temple remains and the causeway which led to the river temple is now buried with the valley temple being under modern buildings. Small pyramids for queens are adjacent to the Great Pyramid, as are boat pits.

 

In 1954, a large cedar boat (pictured at left) was uncovered in one of the pits and then reassembled. It is now on display next to the pyramid. A second boat remains in pieces in another covered pit. The boats may have been provided for the deceased king to travel through the underworld.

 

The Giza Plateau also is home to two other large pyramids for the subsequent kings, Chephren and Menkaura. As with the Great Pyramid, both of these pyramids have valley temples and mortuary temples connected by causeways. However, next to Chephren's valley temple is the famous 73-metre long Sphinx and its associated temple.

 

Despite controversy over its age, most Egyptologists believe that the Sphinx was carved from a rocky outcrop at the same time as Chephren's pyramid.

 

The resources for building enormous pyramids during the rest of the Old Kingdom could not be mustered and the pyramids were both smaller and less well built. The 5th Dynasty pyramid of Unas at Saqqara is famous for its Pyramid Texts - the first funerary texts carved into the walls of any pyramid. The pyramid is located just south of the walled enclosure of the pyramid of Djoser.

 

During the Middle Kingdom, kings again built themselves pyramids, but being largely of mud-brick, they have not survived very well.  Elaborate interior designs failed to stop ancient tomb robbers from breaking in and stealing the burial goods.

 

The time of large pyramids had passed, although small pyramids were used in some New Kingdom private burials as superstructures for funerary chapels. Restored examples exist at Deir el-Medina, the village of the workmen who constructed the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings.

 

Pyramids were also built south of Egypt in ancient Nubia (the northern part of today's Sudan), where there are actually more than in Egypt. Although being influenced by the Egyptian pyramids, the pyramids in Nubia had their own style and were built on a smaller scale and with steeper sides. In the case of the Nubian pyramids, the tombs of owners were usually underground with the pyramid built on top. The last pyramid was built in Nubia in the 4th century AD

تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.

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The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.

There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008.[1][2] Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.[3][4] [5]

The earliest known Egyptian pyramid is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BCE–2611 BCE) which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.

The best known Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built.[6]

The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.


Historic development

The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara.

By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.[7][8]

The first historically documented Egyptian pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, who planned what Egyptologists believe to be a tomb for the pharaoh Djoser. Amenhotep is credited with being the first to conceive the notion of stacking mastabas on top of each other — creating an edifice composed of a number of "steps" that decreased in size towards its apex. The result was the Step Pyramid of Djoser — which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.[9]

The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. It was during this time that the most famous pyramids, those near Giza, were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed.

Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the Kings of Napata. While Napatan rule was brief and ceased in 661 BC, the Egyptian influence made an indelible impression, and during the later Sudanese Kingdom of Meroe (approximately in the period between 300 BC–300 AD) this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred indigenous, but Egyptian-inspired royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities.
Pyramid symbolism

The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape of a pyramids is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining.

While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles that might have given rise to them. One theory is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine."[10]

The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens. One of the narrow shafts that extends from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky. This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.

All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.[11]
Number and location of pyramids

In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of p
yramids, in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered. As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.[3]

The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the "Headless Pyramid", was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert sands subsequent to Lepsius' survey. It was only found again during an archaeological dig conducted in 2008.[12]

Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by desert sands. If visible at all they may appear as little more than mounds of rubble. As a consequence archaeologists are continuing to identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures.

The most recent pyramid to be discovered is that of Queen Sesheshet, mother of 6th Dynasty Pharaoh Teti, located at Saqqara. The discovery was announced by Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, on 11 November 2008.[4][13]

All of Egypt's pyramids, except the small Third Dynasty pyramid of Zawyet el-Amwat (or Zawyet el-Mayitin), are sited on the west bank of the Nile, and most are grouped together in a number of pyramid fields. The most important of these are listed geographically
The largely destroyed Pyramid of Djedefre

Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid (other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one)[5]— the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure, which would have placed it among the half-dozen or so largest pyramids in Egypt.

Its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it an easy source of stone. Quarrying — which began in Roman times — has left little apart from about 15 courses of stone superimposed upon the natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core. A small adjacent satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation.
Giza

Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops"); the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren); the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices known as "Queen's pyramids"; and the Great Sphinx.

Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, near its apex. This pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume.

The Giza Necropolis has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of those wonders still in existence.
Zawyet el-Aryan 

This site, halfway between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemkhet. Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of his step pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty meters in height; had it been completed it is likely to have exceeded 40.
Abu Sir
 
The Pyramid of Sahure at Abu Sir, viewed from the pyramid's causeway.
There are a total of fourteen pyramids at this site, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low-quality local limestone.

The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai — is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some 70 metres in height and then later transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

The Step Pyramid of Djoser

Major pyramids located here include the Step Pyramid of Djoser — generally identified as the world's oldest substantial monumental structure to be built of finished stone — the Pyramid of Merykare, the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which retains a pyramid causeway that is one of the best-preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of the earliest known restoration attempts, conducted by a son of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djoser's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djoser's.

South of the main pyramid field at Saqqara is a second collection of later, smaller pyramids, including those of Pepi I, Isesi, Merenre, Ibi and Pepi II. Most of these are in a poor state of preservation.

The Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Shepseskaf either did not share an interest in, or have the capacity to undertake pyramid construction like his predecessors. His tomb, which is also sited at south Saqqara was instead built as an unusually large mastaba and offering temple complex. It is commonly known as the Mastaba of Faraoun.[14]

A previously unknown pyramid was discovered at north Saqqara in late 2008. It is believed to be the tomb of Teti's mother, it currently stands approx 5m high, although the original height was closer to 14m. The opening of the tomb is scheduled for early December 2008.
 

Snofru's Red Pyramid

This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, and was relatively unknown outside archaeological circles.

The southern Pyramid of Snofru, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first Egyptian pyramid intended by its builders to be a "true" smooth-sided pyramid from the outset; the earlier pyramid at Meidum had smooth sides in its finished state - but it was conceived and built as a step pyramid, before having its steps filled in and concealed beneath a smooth outer casing.

As a true smooth-sided structure, the Bent Pyramid was only a partial success — albeit a unique, visually imposing one; it is also the only major Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original smooth outer limestone casing intact. As such it serves as the best contemporary example of how the ancient Egyptians intended their pyramids to look.

Several kilometeres to the north of the Bent Pyramid is the last — and most successful — of the three pyramids constructed during the reign of Snofru; the Red Pyramid is the world's first successfully completed smooth-sided pyramid. The structure is also the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza.
Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III, as well as a number of small, mostly ruined subsidiary pyramids.

Located to the south of Dahshur, this area was used in the First Intermediate Period by several kings who constructed their pyramids out of mudbrick.

The pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht.

Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I. The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. One of these subsidiary pyramids is known to be that of Amenemhat's cousin, Khaba II.[15] The site which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.
 

The pyramid at Meidum.
The pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been started by that pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. However, that attribution is uncertain, as no record of Huni's name has been found at the site.

It was constructed as a step pyramid, and then later converted into the first "true" smooth-sided pyramid when the steps were filled in, and an outer casing added.

The pyramid suffered several catastrophic collapses in ancient and medieval times; medieval Arab writers described it as having 7 steps - although today only the three uppermost of these remain, giving the structure its odd, tower-like appearance. The hill on which the pyramid is situated is not a natural landscape feature — it is the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid gave way.
 

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawarra

Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place.
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

egyptian pharaohs

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There are many different types of ancient Egyptian sites. Some can be considered monuments, while others are ancient towns that are more than a single monument. However, we can usually describe ancient monuments as temples, tombs, including pyramids, huge statues, government buildings, including palaces, and private property, such as houses.


Most of the best preserved monuments of ancient Egypt are Temples and tombs, because they were built to last longer than such places as houses or palaces. In fact, many temples and tombs were meant to last for a million years. Therefore, they built them out of tough stone, while they built houses, palaces and other government buildings out of bricks made of mud.
Temples Tombs, Including Pyramids Other Ancient Pharaonic Sites After the Pharaohs in Egypt



Temples


We can divide the types of Egyptian Temples into three kinds, though all of them served ancient Egyptian "Gods" in one form or another. The largest and grandest of the temples were those built by the Egyptian State for important national "Gods". However, common people were usually not allowed into much of these temples. Therefore, a second type of temple, much smaller and less grand, were sometimes built by common people for their own worship of the gods. The final kind of temple was the mortuary temples, built for kings, who were also considered gods.

In ancient Egypt, Temples were not built for the same reasons that we build Temples, Churches and Mosques today. The gods were not so much worshipped in Egypt's ancient temples as they were taken care of by the priests. Common people were usually not allowed into most of the temples, where priests washed, clothed and delivered food to statues of the Gods.

Most of the temples of ancient Egypt were fairly similar in many ways. They often had one or more open courtyards, one or more halls with columns that Egyptologists call hypostyle halls, in inner chapel known as a sanctuary, where the god's statue was placed, and they were often surrounded by a wall, with a large front part known as a pylon. However, some had many pylons separating many open courtyards. Most temples also had other buildings for storage and houses for the priests.

Temples were given much farm land and sometimes treasures, mostly by the king, so that the temple would have money to pay the priests and run the temple. Much of the time, the temples were the largest land owners in ancient Egypt.

Tombs, Including Pyramids


There are many types of tombs in Egypt. However, throughout Egypt's past, the tombs of kings and high officials, upper class artists and craftsmen, and the very poor people were very different. For very poor people, the types of tombs they used stayed about the same, but the tombs of kings and high officials changed a lot over time, as did the location of their cemeteries.

At first, the kings of Egypt were buried in what are known as mastabas in southern Egypt, mainly at a place called Abydos. Mastaba is an Arabic word meaning bench, because these tombs looked like a bench. They consisted of a pit where the dead were buried in the ground covered by stones above ground. Later mastabas sometimes had many rooms below ground and many above ground for the storage of items that the dead person wished to take with him or her into the afterlife.

Later, during a period known as the Old Kingdom, the kings decided to be buried in a more northern location around the capital of Egypt. This was a city called the White Walls, but the Greeks called it Memphis. There were several cemeteries used around Memphis. The first was a place called Saqqara, where the earliest pyramids were built. These were not true pyramids, because they had stepped sides rather than being smooth.

Later kings experimented with true pyramids at a place called Dashure, where they finally built the first true pyramid tomb. However, the largest and grandest pyramids where later built at a place called the Giza Plateau, which is now just outside of the modern city of Cairo, Egypt. However, there were a number of other locations where the kings of Egypt built pyramids, but almost all of these were built near Memphis in the north, or only as far south as a place called the Fayoum.


By a period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom, the Egyptian kings stopped building pyramids, choosing instead to to build hidden tombs in Southern Egypt near a new capital that we usually call Thebes. Tombs robbers often stole the rich items from the tombs that the kings wanted to take to the afterlife with them, so at Thebes, the tombs were dug into the rocks and the entrances were then hidden.

Though there are exceptions, most of the time all of the tombs were built on the west side of the Nile River, while the living cities were built on the eastern side. This is because the sun rises to begin the day from the east and sets to end the day on the west.

Other Ancient Pharaonic Sites




Today, we have discovered many other ancient sites in Egypt. Some are palaces, while others are entire towns, including public buildings, agricultural buildings, common houses and other buildings. Some of the most famous are the worker's villages, where the craftsmen, artists and laborers who build the tombs (including pyramids) lived. Others include famous forts and huge statues.

Unfortunately, many of these buildings were not built as well as ancient tombs and temples. The Egyptians used bricks made out of mud to build these types of buildings. Temples and tombs were usually built out of stone which lasts much longer.

After the Pharaohs in Egypt

Egypt's history is very long, and even after the pharaohs there are many important ancient sites. For example, there are Roman fortresses, ancient Christian monasteries and churches, and more recently, famous old Mosques (where Muslims pray) and Mausoleums, which are Islamic tombs. Unlike Christian monuments, which often are decorated with religious paintings, the Mosques and Mausoleums are decorated with designs, but no pictures or paintings. We can usually tell that a building is a Mosque because it has a minaret, a tall tower. We can tell that a building is a Mausoleum because they usually have big domes.

The ancient Christian monasteries are some of the oldest in the world, and are very famous. In fact, the first Christian monasteries were built in Egypt. Some monasteries no longer have monks that live in them, but other's still do. Most of the monasteries are built like forts because in ancient times they were sometimes attacked. The oldest monastery in the world that has always had monks living in it is St. Catherine's Monastery in Egypt. There are also many old churches throughout Egypt, many of which are still used today.
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

الجمعة، 26 مارس، 2010

Pyramids of Giza

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The most famous Egyptian pyramids to be built are the Great Pyramids of Giza, located in the outskirts of present-day Cairo. There are over 100 Egyptian pyramids of various sizes, and over 50 more in neighboring Sudan. However, the three Great Pyramids of Giza earn their fame by being the largest of these.

In the most popular pictures of the Pyramids of Giza, like the one shown below, the middle pyramid, that of Khafre (Chephren), appears larger due to the angle and because it was built on higher ground. The largest pyramid is actually the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), the one on the left.

The Great Pyramid of Khufu

Contrary to popular belief, not all the Great Pyramids of Giza are considered part of the Seven Wonders of the World. Only the largest, the Great Pyramid of Khufu, is a member, and is the only one of the Seven Wonders that still stands. Egypt was also home to another of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which was destroyed long ago.

The Pyramid of Khufu has a height of 145 m (475 ft) and a base area of 52,400 sqm (562,500 sqft). That area is large enough to fit over 20 Olympic-size swimming pools! And for thousands of years, until the rise of modern-day skyscrapers, the pyramid was the tallest building in the world.

What makes the pyramid an architectural triumph and one of the Seven Wonders of the World is the fact that the rocks used in its construction each way more than 2 tons. And there are more than 2 million of those rocks.

Greek travelers to ancient Giza wrote that it took a hundred thousand slaves 20 years to construct the pyramid. However, since they visited Egypt more than 2 thousand years after the Egyptian pyramids were built, the truth of their accounts are suspect. Modern engineers estimate that it would likely take less people and less time to build the pyramid using technology that was available at that time.

Treasures of the Pharaoh

The Pyramid of Khufu was built by the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) in the 4th Dynasty circa 2560 BC, making it over 4500 years old! It is widely accepted that the pyramid was built to bury Pharaoh Khufu when he died. However, many other conspiracy theories abound as to why the pyramids were built, ranging from astronomical observatories to alien artifacts.

Since Egyptian Pharaohs were noted for being buried with their great treasure, Arab conquerors attempted to gain entrance into the Pyramid of Khufu in order to plunder it.

They managed to find a few narrow passages that led both up into the center of the pyramid, and down beneath the massive structure. However, all they managed to find at the end of these passages were empty chambers. No mummies or treasure was found in the pyramid.

During the Arabs' excavation of the Pyramid of Khufu, they encountered various boulders and slabs that were used to seal the passages and chambers within the pyramid. They also found hidden doors. This probably fueled the many myths about the Egyptian pyramids being booby-trapped, and where a grave robber who managed to get in would never get out alive.

A 17th century Englishman managed to uncover another shaft connecting the passages, but still no treasure was to be found.

Two conclusions can be derived from this. One, ancient tomb raiders have long since plundered all the treasure from the pyramid, leaving behind nothing but a few empty chambers. Or two, Khufu's mummy and treasure is still cleverly hidden within the Great Pyramid.
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

10egyptian places

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There’s no other place in the world that holds more mystery than the country of Egypt. The smell of the mysticism of the ancient Egyptians still lingers over the place. This ancient atmosphere seems to fill its every nook and cranny with secrets yet untold.

* Pyramids of Giza

And perhaps there is nothing more mysterious, and more worthy of seeing in Egypt than the esteemed Great Pyramids of Giza. These are the pyramids of Khufu, Kafhre, and Menkaura. These perfectly shaped structures leaves everyone in awe and in wonder about how exactly they were made, considering that the ancient Egyptians had no advanced technology to work with.

* Sphinx

And of course, if you’re going to go to the Great Pyramids, then you might as well go to the Sphinx. This is one of the most mysterious structures in Egypt. Even now, archeologists are still arguing about its origin and its purpose, making it the subject of the famous phrase, “the Riddle of the Sphinx.”

* Abu Simbel

These two temples were built by Pharaoh Ramesses II to commemorate himself and his wife, Nefertari. It’s a breathtaking place, and its temples are hailed as one of the most beautiful in Egypt. What’s even more interesting about the Abu Simbel is the amount of effort put into relocating and preserving it.

* Cairo

And of course, if you really want to immerse yourself in Egyptian culture, it would be best for you to go to the capital city, Cairo. The place is teeming with bazaars and restaurants where you can buy your taste of Egyptian culture. It’s surely not a place to miss.

* Temples of Karnak

What better way to experience ancient Egypt than to visit the very place where they worshipped their gods. The Temples of Karnak is the biggest site for Egyptian worship. It has a monument to just about every god in the Theban religion.

* The Nile River

And of course, you can’t miss out on the famous Nile River. It is, after all, what nourished Egypt and turned it into the place of wonder that it is. In fact, what’s great about visiting the Nile is that you can take a Felucca and sail down the legendary river, taking in the sights of the city and the sunset.

* Valley of the Kings

The Valley of the Kings or Biban El Moluk is the place where Egypt’s most esteemed pharaohs were buried. This place is teeming with mummies and undiscovered treasures. In fact, this is the place where archeologists found one of the most famous mummies of all time – Tutankhamun.

* Egyptian Museum

Of course, since it would be unwise to leave the Egyptian treasures in the tombs they were found in, the archeologists put them in the Egyptian museum where they would be put under high security. If you want to learn about Egypt, this is the best place to start. There’s no other place with a higher concentration of Egyptian artifacts, and you can even follow the tour so that you can be oriented with the history of each of the artifacts.

* Siwa Oasis

Egypt isn’t all about temples and pyramids, there’s a place where you can just let loose and have fun – the Siwa Oasis. Here, you can take a swim in the cool waters to ward off the desert heat. It is rumored that Alexander stopped here during his great conquest.

* Necropolis of Sakkarah

And indeed, you can’t miss something as intriguing as a ‘Necropolis’ or, if translated, a City of the Dead. Here, you will find the less popular pyramids of Egypt, the step pyramids. However, though they are less popular than the great pyramids, they’re still suffused with great history and culture.
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

الأربعاء، 24 مارس، 2010

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the Pyramids. Without the Plethora of Peddlers.

CAIRO – Visiting the famed Giza Pyramids in Egypt has long been irritating for tourists who have to fend off peddlers relentlessly offering camel rides and trinkets.
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Farouk Hosni, Egypt’s culture minister, showed off modern upgrades at the pyramids in Giza.
But the hustlers were gone Monday as Egypt began the first stage of an elaborate, $26 million project to modernize the area and make it friendlier to tourists. The changes also improve security with a 12-mile chain-link fence featuring cameras, alarms and motion detectors.
“It was a zoo,” said Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s chief archaeologist, recalling the past free-for-all. “Now we are protecting both the tourists and the ancient monuments.”
The three Giza Pyramids have been unusually open for a 5,000-year-old Wonder of the World. The desert plateau on which they stand was once isolated. But as the capital has expanded, slums have been built right to the edge of the site, separated in places by only a low stone wall.
Tourists are barraged by peddlers selling statues and T-shirts. Visitors are sometimes followed by men on camels selling rides or photos, and rarely taking no for an answer. Young men even try to force their way into taxis carrying foreigners toward the pyramids, looking to steer them to nearby horse stables for a ride around the site.
There are other security concerns. Bombings in Sinai resorts in the past four years have kept officials wary.
The new technology is intended to curb all sorts of security problems. The long fence around the plateau is 13 feet high at some points, and it is dotted with infrared sensors and motion detectors. “Intruders can’t jump over this,” said Kamal Wahid, the site’s general director.
Tourists will now enter through a new brick building, with half a dozen gates equipped with metal detectors and X-ray machines. Almost 200 closed-circuit cameras monitor people’s movements on the plateau.
“It looks clean and beautiful,” said Michael Schmidt, 43, a real estate agent from New York City. “They did a good job.”
Mr. Wahid said the phasing out of the hawkers would not be sudden or “unkind.” But as Mr. Hawass showed off the changes on Monday, trinket sellers were nowhere to be seen. Three camel riders in traditional robes stood at the edge of the plateau, waiting for tourists to come to them.
As a reporter walked up, one said, “Go away, the police told us not to talk to you.”
A second camel rider, who would not give his name for fear he could lose his permit, said: “I’ve been working here for 25 years. Now I don’t know if I will be here tomorrow. I have five children, a wife. What will happen to us?”
It was not clear whether the trinket dealers were pushed out just for the day or longer.
Once the project is complete, golf carts will drive tourists around the site, similar to systems in Luxor and other sites.
Exactly how much a future visitor will be able to roam around freely is unclear, but on Monday, Ramish Bissoon, a teacher from Trinidad, said he was not restricted. “I feel very comfortable and secure,” he said. “There are a lot of policemen around.”
Mr. Hawass said none of the innovations would diminish a visit. “We are giving back the magic of the pyramids,” he said.
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

الأربعاء، 17 مارس، 2010

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I. Introduction
Tourism has been grown rapidly over the past decade. Aggregate trends and patterns
indicate that receipts from international tourism increased by an average of 8.2 percent
annually for the past decade, reaching $ 440 billion in 1998, while international arrivals
during the same period rose by a yearly average of 4.3 percent to reach $ 635 million in
1998। Tourism, along with information technology, is expected to lead economic


activity in the next two decades, with a growth rate in job creation one-and-a-half times
that of any other industrial sector. Regarding export earnings, tourism has become the
world’s largest export earner and an increasingly important item on the Balance of
Payments for many countries. Furthermore, foreign currency receipts from international
tourism reached $439 billion in 1998, a sum larger than that of any other product or
service including exports of petroleum products, motor vehicles, telecommunications
equipment, or textiles

While there is fairly detailed information on tourists’ arrivals, nationalities, their
estimated expenditures and so forth, there is limited information on the contribution of
this sector to output, employment, and income. These shortcomings characterize
tourism information and statistics in both developed and developing countries alike. The
lack of a solid, comprehensive, and internationally uniform information base on the
economic impact of tourism has triggered efforts, particularly by developed countries,
to address this weakness.1 Progress has been slow, however. Except for a few developed
countries, statistical information on the whole remains scanty, incomplete, and for the
most part focused on simple calculations of international arrivals without any
subsequent analysis of the impact of tourism activity on its respective economy.2

This situation deprives both the tourism authorities and companies of information
essential to making public policy and developing business strategies. Furthermore, the
current status of tourism information reduces social awareness of tourism’s importance
as a factor promoting economic growth and as a source of employment. National
accounts focus only on the ‘hotels and restaurants’ sector despite that foreign tourists’
contribution to GDP. Because tourism is not properly reflected in the existing national
1 Refer to efforts by the OECD, Canada, the US, the EU and others to overcome this information
difficulty with this sector.
2 See for example, papers presented at the World Trade Organization’s conference on the measurement of
the economic impact of tourism, June 15-18
تابع القراءة Résuméabuiyad

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